Date: 7/13/00 6:59:03 PM Pacific Daylight Time
From: (Wrightslaw)

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The Delaware Supreme Court upheld a finding that lay advocates who represent parents in Delaware special education due process hearings are engaged in the unauthorized practice of law (UPL).

According to the July 6 decision by the Court: 

“On August 8, 1996, the Office of Disciplinary Counsel (‘ODC’) filed a petition with the Board requesting that Arons, Watson and the Parent Information Center be declared to have engaged in activities constituting the unauthorized practice of law by representing families of children with
disabilities in due process hearings. While admitting the representation of at least five such families in Delaware due process hearings, Appellants denied that their activities, even if amounting to the practice of law, constitute the unauthorized practice of law. They argued that section 1415(h)(1) of the IDEA permits the representations in which they have engaged and preempts any state-law proscription against the unauthorized practice of law that might otherwise apply. That section
provides that any party to a due process hearing ‘shall be accorded . . . the right to be accompanied and advised by counsel and by individuals with special knowledge or training with respect to the problems of children with disabilities.’ They also claimed that Delaware is alone among the fifty states in precluding non-lawyer representation in these circumstances.”

Although this case applies only to advocacy representation in Delaware, it’s impossible to predict if its impact will be limited to Delaware.

We expect the Arons case to have no impact in Virginia because the Code of Virginia, Section 22.1-214(C) states: “The parents and the school division shall have the right to be represented by legal counsel or other representative before such hearing officer without being in violation of
the provisions of § 54.1-3904 (the unauthorized practice of law section of the Virginia Code).

Other states may have similar language in their statutes, regulations, or in opinions issued by their Attorney Generals.

If you know your state’s position and have specific legal authority, statute, regulation, legal opinion, or other authority, please send the information by email to:

The Delaware justices seemed to believe that Delaware parents can easily find attorneys to represent children with disabilities:

“If it could be demonstrated that an unmet need exists and that the local bar could not adequately respond, this Court would consider the adoption of a rule allowing lay representation in a certain limited class of cases . . . At present, however, such a need has not been demonstrated.”

What next? 

Check your state statutes, regulations, and AG opinions. If your state laws or regs need to change to permit representation by lay advocates, you need to educate your legislators about these issues.

We are indebted to the Council of Parents Attorneys and Advocates listserve for staying on top of this case. David C. Vladeck, counsel for Arons, spoke at the last COPAA conference in Houston, and gave the inside story of this case as it was unfolding.

If you are an advocate or attorney who assists or represents children with disabilities, you need to join COPAA! For membership information, go to

You can download the Arons decision in html from the Wrightslaw Law Library -

You can download the Arons decision in pdf from Wrightslaw at



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Pete and Pam Wright 
Wrightslaw & The Special Ed Advocate 
P. O. Box 1008 
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